Field Trip: Evaluating Teachers Virtually

  

The concern about student learning loss is real. Reduced classroom time, learning over Zoom, technology challenges, difficult home situations, mental health concerns, and heightened inequities have all contributed in one way or another to a difficult academic year.

But of all the factors that affect student performance, one stands above the rest: teachers. Yet throughout the pandemic, supporting teachers’ growth took on a new wrinkle: how do you observe, evaluate, and provide feedback to teachers who are either teaching from home, or who are teaching students who are at home?

In today’s podcast, Dr. James Stronge, Heritage Professor at the College of William & Mary School of Education and president and CEO of Stronge & Associates Educational Consulting, considers:

  • The pandemic’s impact on teachers and the administrators who support them
  • The skills needed for effective virtual teaching
  • Principles for schools as they conduct teacher evaluations in a virtual environment
  • How to shape evaluations to support growth and genuinely impact student learning

 

For Further Reading:

Dr. Stronge referenced several research studies in this podcast, which can be found here:

Full Transcript  

It’s impossible to overstate the impact the last year has had on education. Safety protocols, Zoom classes, learning loss, questions about how to reopen. But today we’re asking the question, with so many schools operating virtually, what impact has that had on how schools support teachers? And what does the future hold?

DR. JAMES STRONGE: I think we’re in the place now of still learning, and I suspect some of these new skills and ways of doing things will begin to solidify until we see going to work. What’s the balance between live and in-person training as opposed to what we now know we can do online?

And, should what we’ve learned this year change how schools approach teacher evaluation?

DR. STRONGE: Many of the things that we’ve known that have been effective practices in terms of teaching and effective practices in terms of evaluating teaching are still relevant, viable, and should be in place.

The best evaluation is what occurs on an ongoing regular basis. It’s the feedback, coaching, and support that I use.

We’re talking about how schools can use professional learning and evaluation to equip teachers to address the very real challenges we’re facing as we look to the next school year.

In terms of teaching, that’s the place where I don’t think we know yet. I’m not convinced that we go back to a normal. I don’t know what a normal is. I don’t believe we’re going to set aside all that we’ve learned.

I think the quickest way that I know to begin regaining some of the lost ground is to teach to students. We don’t teach subjects. We teach students content and skills, and that lesson is more prominent in my mind, and it has to be in our practice, than it has ever been.

From Frontline Education, this is Field Trip.

A few weeks ago, I sat down — virtually, of course — with Dr. James Stronge.

RYAN ESTES: I wonder if you could begin by just introducing yourself. I f f you were to meet someone at a coffee shop and they say “Dr. Stronge, what is it that you do?” W hat’s your thirty second overview?

DR. STRONGE: Well for introduction, the first thing I would say at the coffee shop is, “Call me James.” Just to be casual. And I’d probably order a latte. But in addition to that, I am a professor, it’s called a Heritage Professor at the College of William & Mary in the School of Education. I teach doctoral students in educational leadership and research related to policy planning and leadership.

And I’m also the president and CEO of my small consulting company, Stronge & Associates. We’ve been in business for about 10 years and do a lot of work with districts on teacher evaluation, hiring and effectiveness, a lot of technical assistance, as well as training and using my rubrics, my framework for evaluation with districts.

So that that’s a little bit long-winded, and by this point I suspect somebody would be wanting to get up and go find another table to at.

RYAN ESTES: Well, in order to begin, I’d like to actually step back first and the last time you and I spoke, and I asked you that question, you said, “Well, first and foremost, I would describe myself as a teacher.” And I would love if you could give me your 30,000 foot view, your overall perspective of the pandemic’s impact on education.

As we’re talking right now, it’s been almost exactly a year since there was an emergency declaration and schools closed down and all of a sudden life took on a very different look and feel. How has the past year impacted education and maybe specifically the impact that it’s had on teachers and the quality of teaching and how administrators support teachers?

DR. STRONGE: The real answer for me, Ryan, is that I think it’s too early to tell what is the impact. I don’t really think we know, especially in terms of teachers and quality teaching, the short-term impact on students, it’s harmful. I’m pretty well convinced of that. And I can talk about some research in a bit in terms of what we know of good teaching and the impact of online or virtual learning.

But I think it’s pretty evident that it’s not the same as being live in a classroom, in a brick and mortar classroom with a teacher. Teachers really do count. And I think one of the lessons that we’ve learned is, just to reiterate what we’ve known for many, many decades, for as long as we’ve been a nation and way earlier than that, teachers matter. They matter greatly.

In terms of teaching, that’s the place where I don’t think we know yet. I’m not convinced that we go back to a normal. I don’t know what a normal is. I don’t believe we’re going to set aside all that we’ve learned. One of the things that really is evident to me in the short term, again, in terms of teaching, is that teachers are extraordinarily adaptable.

I’ve watched teachers online with my with one of my grandsons, and it’s just fascinating to see how she manages. How do you keep a six year old boy engaged, knowing exactly where to tune in and do all the various things that that teacher does? It’s just remarkable to me to see how rank and file teachers are just phenomenal.

We’ve known that all along and I see it even more. I think there are skills that have been learned that will be retained even when we go back into classes, when school buses are running again, and when kids are arriving at school and having full classrooms again, some of this  will be carry-over. And that’s where I think we need time to process what we’ve learned and how we’d benefit from this. Because I do believe there can be benefits that will emerge from this terrible experience that we’ve had for a year.

RYAN ESTES: Before we started recording, you and I were talking about what teaching actually looks like virtually and how challenging it actually is to do virtually and even more so when you’re trying to do both in-person and virtual teaching at the same time. Teaching to a classroom of students in person is quite different from what many teachers are doing today. Can you talk a little bit about what those two skillsets look like? How do they differ? And maybe the question is, is it really indeed a different skill set?

DR. STRONGE: I do think it’s a different skill set that is layered on top of the existing skills that effective teachers more naturally have and develop. Keep in mind, Ryan, it takes in a complex occupation, a complex profession, about 10,000 hours — about 10 years — to reach mastery, and masterful teachers didn’t get there overnight.

But what happened overnight is that what those very effective teachers were doing in their classrooms required a complete rethinking, re orientation, to how they would deliver those. And there were certain new skills that were layered on top. You can be very effective in the classroom with movement, instructional delivery, engagement, and you may in fact be effective online. In fact, I suspect, we don’t know this now, but I suspect many of the teachers who had those effective skills in the classroom were also the ones who were effective online. But you have to add to that, just the simple tech skills.

 What if you get lost and you don’t open the app correctly. What if something goes wrong with it and some students can’t come on or you lose sound or you lose visual connection or who knows? Just all the little details that are necessary. How do you move students in and out of the virtual workspaces into small groups? It is a different world.

And we know a fair amount about those. The complicated part is that none of the skills that were necessary to be good in a classroom have been negated. They still must be present, but we’ve added on top of it these additional responsibilities. I can’t imagine, for example, how do you teach a six-year-old or five-year-old how to read online? How do you do that?

RYAN ESTES: I don’t know how to do that in person, let alone…

DR. STRONGE: No, I don’t either. And I can’t even begin to imagine how to do this. And what do you do when you have let’s stay with the little ones? You have a five-year-old who gets up out of his seat or her seat and starts rolling around on the floor. How do you deal with that? And so it’s complicated.

There are some things that we do know that have been learned over the last 20 years or so about effective virtual teaching, because we’ve been in this business for about 20 years. It isn’t new at all.

For example, just a quick list of skills that are necessary to be effective in a virtual world:

Number one, teachers have to have easy-to-follow course design and navigation. There’s a greater premium placed on organization than ever. So if a teacher was a little lax or flexible in a classroom, you just simply cannot do that online. You’ve got to be on time, online, organized, and have that easy-to-follow design that students can use and navigate.

Number two, timely responses and feedback to students has always been important, but it’s critically important now. How do you know if children are engaged? How do you know if they’re learning? How do you give them feedback? How do you? It’s a whole series of how-to questions.

Thirdly, we know that effective online virtual teaching includes the use of appropriate discipline, specific technology tools, and every one of our disciplines in pre-K 12 education has at least one, and many of them more, very popular online sites that those professions go to for math or for science.

And the teachers have to become really cognizant of those and work with and through those discipline-specific technology tools. So they incorporate those in their own training.

Let me give you three more. So that’s three.

Number four, clear expectations and direction for assessments and activities. The teacher has to have a precise plan going into the day, going in to that virtual lesson, on what they know about their students, what they’re going to deliver, how they’re going to assess it, what activities are going to be used, and how you’re going to do that. How do you have, for example, a chemistry lab when it’s all online? The way we’ve been doing it in America, and across the world, is that the teacher’s at home, and now she has those powerful, somewhat dangerous chemicals on the kitchen table and mixing those and demonstrating. So that’s one level. And on the other level, how do kids get their hands on it? How do students learn?

A fifth point is feel the point is we know that teachers have to chunk the instruction and embed formative assessment in what they’re doing to check for student learning. But chunking becomes really, really important.

And then a final element that just seems like it would go without saying is that you really have to make learning fun. Good teachers do that in their classrooms anyway, and in an online world, they cannot get so bogged down with the technology and the tools and the techniques that they forget kids learn when kids are having fun. So we do know a good bit about what these best teachers have to do.

RYAN ESTES: So, certainly there are many teachers who are really knocking it out of the park, who are incorporating all of these different skills and providing great online experiences for kids who are learning, but that brings up another question, and that is, how do you know who those teachers are? How do you evaluate virtual teaching? And I’m curious to hear, as you’ve said, virtual teaching is not something that is new. What about evaluation of virtual teaching? How do you evaluate it, especially if you are observing them virtually?

DR. STRONGE: Number one, it’s important to remember that if evaluation counts, if it was worth anything in the past, It’s at least as important and probably more so now. Some individuals may have thought about not evaluating, but if evaluation is about supporting teacher growth and improvement, teachers need that quality supportive coaching type of evaluation. Every day, they need the support.

So how do we do that? There are some techniques that we have been practicing — we, I mean the consultants that work with my company and I — have been doing with a lot of schools and training about the evaluation of it. And I guess there are two key points I would make.

One is that the focus has to be on, what do you need to know right now? How can I help you right now in this environment? It can’t be that we’ll say, “All right. I’ll give you some feedback within five working days.” If a teacher is struggling with using breakout rooms in Zoom, you better have a way to help that teacher figure that out right now.

If discipline is a problem in the classroom, you can’t say, “All right, we’re going to send kids home.” I mean, they’re already at home. What are we going to do? How are you going to manage that? We as leaders and support individuals, evaluators if you will, coaches, must be in a place that we give teachers ready help on exactly what they need.

To do that you have to be in the classroom, and that leads to the second issue. What techniques can we use? And drop-in visits that are long enough to know what’s going on and what the teacher needs help with become really important. That’s a tool. And then being available, not just to drop in, but to be available for the teacher to drop back in to see me after that lesson. What can we do? Where are we going with this? And another tool that has emerged as being really interesting and viable is not relying as much on observation. An observation already is useful, but it has its flaws already in any kind of setting. If we try to observe though, as our only data source for helping teachers grow and giving feedback in an online world, we’re going to miss too much. Good evaluators are going to really be busy moving around among all of the teachers and the classes of where they are, and then being ready to give feedback. So there’s a greater premium placed on them. And you still are going to miss a lot in observation.

One of the things that has been required or has been encouraged and even required by the New Jersey Department of Education is to have a portfolio component that accompanies the observation. If the teaching is fully online, it can be very useful to have a localized teacher-driven goal and then data artifacts around how that goal was implemented and what was achieved. What did students learn? And putting those elements together, it really encompasses what might be called a scaled down, very practical, hands-on portfolio.

So using multiple data sources and using them smartly becomes really important. That’s a long answer like I often give. Number one, we have to continue evaluation. We have to understand it’s about helping people, helping our teachers immediately. And number two, we have to figure out the right tools.

RYAN ESTES: Let me follow up to that question that I just asked you. In our current context, you touched on this a little bit, what are the best ways to go about observing, evaluating, and having those conversations with teachers as well as setting goals? Is that the kind of thing where you still get together for a virtual meeting or you just pop in on Zoom to observe the classroom, or are there entirely different procedures that are going to be helpful at this point in time?

DR. STRONGE: There are some different procedures, but many of the things that we’ve known that have been effective practices in terms of teaching and effective practices in terms of evaluating teaching are still relevant, viable, and should be in place. I need to be in the classroom periodically to see what’s occurring. I need to be considering datasets. I need to be looking at student performance. I need to be talking with teachers about it. But in addition to that, at this point in time, there’s probably a greater premium on collective efficacy, collective work, than what we have seen. In the past where there are departments or teams, those groups should be meeting in addition to the evaluator attempting to do the work. I, as an evaluator, can’t know everything, but if you have a department chair in math and you’re working with the other teachers on the math team, you’re going to be teaching some comparable content, comparable processes, comparable experiences from which you can learn from one another. And having that network in place really, really becomes important.

Another thing for the evaluator is to continue evaluation, but scale back on some of the expectations. In my evaluation system, depending on the state that is using it, there are from six to ten performance standards. The more commonly used version has six standards plus ways and means to measure student progress. But with those six standards and under each of those six standards, there is a set of look fors called performance indicators. These are the research-based indicators that I should see when I’m visiting in a classroom. And what we’ve been training on is that within any one of the performance standards, say professional knowledge, there may be eight, look fors. Select the ones that are most germane for newbie online teachers and focus on those when you’re doing the virtual observation.

Here’s a very specific example. Indicator 1.5 under professional knowledge, in my system for evaluation, professional knowledge is standard one in many states. We’ve encouraged school districts to move all the way down to look at indicators 1.5 and 1.8. 1.5 is “Exhibits pedagogical skills relevant to the subject area and best practices based on current research.” And then we give some very specific bulleted items what that would look like. I would be looking for use of technology that’s relevant to the content and the student age. I’d want to consider virtual tools that the teacher is using for communication and facilitation and collaboration with parents and with students. I’d want to look at the use of a variety of online resources to supplement the curriculum. It’s a different world for them.

That’s just within one indicator. If we try to impose on teachers at this point a whole range of indicators like we’ve been using in the past, and we need to return to, it’s just overwhelming. So we have said in the beginning, and during this period, scale back. Don’t stop evaluating, but focus on what matters most right now. And that indicator 1.5 on pedagogical skills seems to be one that is very important for teachers and for evaluators to evaluate teaching.

And then one more example is in my system is 1.8: “Demonstrates an understanding of appropriate accommodations for diverse learners.” Those teachers are still going to have gifted learners, students with special needs, English language learners in their classrooms. So what would the teacher do? One of the things as an evaluator I might look for, Ryan, would be how the teacher is using breakout rooms and other structures for individuals in groups, and how can I help the teacher be more successful with those types of technology tools? Is the teacher using online resources to differentiate the content and instructional strategies? And how do you do that online? And then thirdly, how is he or she accommodating for diverse learning needs? Students were different in a classroom. I guarantee you they’re different now.

So those are very practical, look fors and skills where we can give teachers immediate feedback and support. So less is more. Less is better at this point.

RYAN ESTES: I’m curious, you’ve talked about some of those look fors that are part of your system. Do you anticipate that you’ll be changing your own rubrics as a result of what we have experienced this year?

DR. STRONGE: I don’t. We’ve looked at that. We might revise, but as I’ve looked at the specific rubrics across the six to ten standards, again, depending on the state that’s using it, the rubrics are still relevant. And the indicators, the look fors are still based on the latest research that we know of what makes good teaching, what is effective teaching. And we’ve updated that just recently. So the best research that I know is already reflected in what teachers should know and be able to do. So no, I don’t imagine changing those.

What I do see being different right now, though, is the context in which teachers are implementing those good instructional strategies. And one of the practical outcomes in the short-term is why I think we have to focus on fewer indicators under those quality standards of performance. So if we were to continue with some kind of online elements in our teaching, then we might want to consider what the foci are. But otherwise, what we’ve learned over the last 40 or 50 or more years of what is good teaching should drive what is good teacher evaluation?

RYAN ESTES: The flip side of evaluations of course, is then taking those results and informing professional learning and then how to address those areas of need and opportunity, or address those areas of strength. How do you think the past year has changed how we think about professional learning and the emphasis of what skills we want to develop in teachers, or even in how we will deliver professional development altogether.

DR. STRONGE: I think this is an area where we will make striking changes. I think the soundness of the empirical research on what makes good teaching good, and for the most part, what we know about what makes good evaluation of teaching effective, will remain pretty solid. But what will be different, and this is a good learning, is what we could and should be doing with the results.

One of the lessons that became apparent very early is a point I mentioned earlier, and that’s immediacy of feedback, very pointed, specific feedback.  If that teacher is lost today and we don’t solve that problem today, what’s class going to be like for those kids tomorrow? What’s it going to be like for that teacher tomorrow?

So immediacy is an element that we’ve already known, but we have learned that we can put it in place and we better be doing that.

The second issue in, and I’m talking a little bit globally, is precision of feedback. I can’t just say to the teacher, “You need to improve your collaborative manner in working with students.” Tell me exactly what I need to do. Show me how to do it. Let’s have some teamwork. Let’s have coaching. Help me succeed. And so timeliness and precision in feedback become more important than ever now in terms of delivery. We’ve learned that we can have online training. I am not confident that teachers and leaders immediately are going to flock back to in-person conferences. It’ll be interesting to see how that occurs. There’s real value in being live and in person, and being able to sit down with the cup of coffee and talk with colleagues and do various things. But I do believe this area of what we do with the results of evaluation and how we employ practices for professional growth are likely to continue to change.

I think we’re in the place now of still learning, and I suspect some of these new skills and ways of doing things will begin to solidify over the next coming many months until we see what’s going to work. What’s the balance between live and in-person training as opposed to what we now know we can do online?

RYAN ESTES: I don’t know.

DR. STRONGE: I don’t either. But I see that it’s going to change. I don’t think we’re throwing everything out when we go back. If we go back to school in August or September in regular classrooms, I think growth, coaching, support, and training are going to carry over some of these elements. Because I do think there’s been good learning that has occurred.

RYAN ESTES: One looming issue for schools, of course, has been the problem of learning loss in students. And I would love to hear you talk about what you see as the best ways that schools can mitigate that. What do you see as the fastest path to regain ground? And maybe if I could even focus how we look at this, what skills do we need to develop in teachers to address learning loss?  What would be your top three priorities, for example, for evaluation, and then applying skills that we learned in professional development?

DR. STRONGE: I’m not sure I have three, Ryan, but I will start with the one that is most prominent in my thinking, and that is a greater emphasis on quality student assessment. We have been preaching this for a long time. I’ve certainly have been emphasizing it in all the work I do with teacher effectiveness, training, with my evaluation work. And that is using quality pre-assessment, ongoing or formative assessment, and post assessment, all in combination to know what students know and what comes next. And then building that in to my repertoire of lesson planning and my delivery, my individualization, how I’d work with students.

And I think the quickest way that I know to begin regaining some of the lost ground is to teach to students. We don’t teach subjects. We teach students content and skills and that lesson is more prominent in my mind, and it has to be in our practice, than it has ever been. The most successful teachers in helping kids gain will be those who know how to teach, but they know how to teach exactly what students need to know and where those students are.

So it calls on differentiation. A colleague of mine, Carol Tomlinson,  has been a lead voice in emphasizing the importance of differentiating. And this is a key lesson that I think we must learn and take back into our classes. A second element is that this should go without saying, and that is getting students back into classes where they’re comfortable with quality teachers.

There’s some interesting research about whether online teaching works as well. And I think the jury’s out on this. A fair amount of that research has been done in higher education, but there’ve been a lot of studies in K-12 and meta analyses suggest that the effect size of distance education is actually positive.

If I take a couple of very well-known researchers, John Hattie being one of those, with recent data, the effect size is a positive 0.13. It’s negligible. In essence, what it says is that online or distance education does no harm. Learners should be learning as much when it’s compared with in-person learning.

But there are other data points that are not compliant with this. There’s a very recent study. Well, a study from 2020, published in Educational Researcher, a really well-respected research publication from the American Educational Research Association, in which the finding, the study was related to what happens when you switch charter school students from in-person charter school to virtual charter school. And when that occurred there, the students experienced large negative effects on both math and English Language Arts. So that’s in complete opposition to what some of the other earlier research has shown. I don’t know what the impact is, but I do know that teachers count, and being live and in person with a quality teacher is going to make a difference. If I take this AERA era study, published study, about charter schools versus virtual charter schools, we have to do something to get over that large negative effect. Let’s put kids back in a place where they can learn.

And then I guess you asked for three, and I will give you a third one. And that is, always, always have high but reasonable expectations for students. That was true before the pandemic, it’s true during the pandemic, it’s going to be true after it. Having high expectations for all students and pushing and working with, cajoling, doing whatever’s necessary to help kids succeed. Those are three things that I would say.

RYAN ESTES: Turning back to evaluations for a moment. This has been, of course, a very difficult year for many teachers, maybe for most teachers. They’ve been asked to do things that in many cases they haven’t had the training to do. How would you recommend schools conduct evaluations in the middle of a difficult year for teacher engagement and morale? How do you strike the right balance between making sure you’re caring for your teachers and upholding morale and still having meaningful evaluations? And I suppose I’m asking this, knowing that oftentimes evaluation has had a negative or top-down or punitive connotation.

DR. STRONGE: One of the biggest lessons to learn about evaluation itself from this past year is not really a new lesson, but it may be new in practice. The best evaluation is what occurs on an ongoing regular basis. It’s the feedback, coaching, and support that I use. When teachers change, students change. Summative evaluation are going to continue to play a role. They can be used diagnostically to help teachers grow and improve. And if I’m honest, there are occasions when some teachers need to change their practices dramatically, or they shouldn’t be in front of students or working with students. There’s a role for summative evaluation, but top down has never been the solution.

And one of our big takeaways must be that our evaluators and coaches and collaborative teams must be able and willing to share what to do to get better today. That’s formative feedback and guidance and support for improvement, and that will make a difference. That isn’t new. It’s just that it needs to be put into practice.

RYAN ESTES: With this school year being in such upheaval, and so many things have been set aside: teacher evaluations have not been able to happen as usual in many cases, at least not the way that they have often been done in the past. How do you think these things will impact how schools and States view the role of teacher evaluations in the future? We’ve heard what you think should happen, but what do you think is, is actually going to happen?

DR. STRONGE: We’re talking about two things, Ryan. One is what are the legal requirements? And those didn’t go away in most states. So to say, “Okay, let’s not evaluate during this period” suggests that the law doesn’t need to be fulfilled. It also suggested evaluation was useless. If that’s truly the case, then stop evaluating. There’s no point in it. Only do what makes a difference, that helps teachers grow and as a consequence helps students grow.

So unless the state board policy, state department of education guidelines, or even state statutes change, evaluation is still going to be here with many of the requirements. It was here during the pandemic. It will be here after the pandemic. So that’s one level, there is a legitimate expectation from a public, a tax paying public, that the quality of goods and services being purchased and being provided are done so in a manner that benefits the public, for the public. So it isn’t going away.

The second point though, and we’ve talked about this a bit, I’ve alluded to this in our conversation, and that is what are we doing with the results of evaluation? I hope that we have learned what we’ve known for a long time has to be put in place: help teachers grow. When teachers change, students change.

I’ll give you a specific example. There’s been a huge emphasis over the last several years in school after school, thousands of schools across America, in walkthrough observations. There are tools for it. There are systems built around it, and so forth. Do you know what the effect size is for a walkthrough observation, those five and ten minute observations we’re doing? The answer is 0.0. There is no effect size. Teachers aren’t harmed by doing it. They just aren’t helped. Student achievement doesn’t change. Until teachers change, nothing changes.

Now I’m not saying walkthrough observations should be eliminated. I’m not saying they’re all bad. We should be using the right criteria when we are and conducting them in the right fashion. But the value added comes from the feedback, the quality feedback that emerges from any kind of data collection system, whether it’s walkthroughs, longer observations, artifacts, portfolios, measures of student progress. It’s the feedback that is absolutely clear, empirically, that makes a difference in changing teacher practices and changing the trajectory of student achievement.

We have to change what we’re doing and quit focusing so much just on that area. Principals spend about 12% of their time on any matter related to supervision and instruction. Only about 12% of their time. And of that time, the vast majority is spent on data collection, i.e., walkthroughs. Well, don’t walk through my class anymore, unless you have some timely, specific feedback to share with me and with other teachers on how to improve my practice. Walking through doesn’t work alone. It’s the feedback that makes a difference. That is the other side of that coin. So I’ve gotten into a long answer, as typical. Number one, evaluation is going to be here. It’s mandated by almost every state in some form or fashion. And number two, we as educators should do what we know is right, and that’s help teachers grow.

We’ve been speaking with Dr. James Stronge, heritage professor at the College of William & Mary, and president and CEO of Stronge & Associates.

Field Trip is a podcast from Frontline Education. Frontline is the leading provider of school administrative software, with solutions like Frontline Professional Growth, making it easier to manage teacher evaluations and to connect professional learning opportunities to evaluation results. For more information, visit FrontlineEducation.com/FieldTripPodcast.

For Frontline Education, I’m Ryan Estes. Thanks for listening, and have a great day.